Sanctity of Life and Human Dignity (Philosophy and Medicine)

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Sanctity of Life and Human Dignity (Philosophy and Medicine)

Category : Ethics & Morality

Format: Hardcover

Language: English

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Size: 14.03 MB

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This FAQ will address both general issues and specific questions in the area of moral philosophy. There are multiple problems with this argument, including both questionable premises and questionable inferences.� As an exercise, try to identify them. 1.� Each of us is intimately familiar with our own individual wants and needs and we know how to pursue them. 2.� In contrast, we know far less about the wants and needs of others and how to pursue them. 3.� Therefore, we are much better at pursuing our own interests than the interests of others.� To put if more forcefully:� Pursuing the interests of others is an inefficient way of satisfying wants and needs and is prone to error. 4.� Thus, we will all be better off if we refrain from pursuing the interests of others.� In other words, we will all be better off if we act Egoistically. 5.� Therefore, each of us should adopt the policy of Egoism and pursue our own interests exclusively. ����������������� There are two problems with this argument.� First, it is false that we will all be better off if we act Egoistically.� Some of us will be better off, and some of us will be worse off.� This is obvious once it is realized that some will be advantaged by victimizing others.� Premise 4 might be amended to account for this problem, to read, �On the average, people will be better off if they act Egoistically.�� But on the amended version of premise 4, the conclusion does not seem to follow.� Why should we accept a policy that requires victimization just because people will be better off on the average?� Moreover, it is arguable that the amended premise is also false (it can be argued that Egoism would lead to anarchy, large scale starvation, slavery, etc.). ����������������� The second problem with the argument is that it depends on a principle that runs counter to Egoism.� If we adopt a policy because it would make us all better off, then we are adopting it in order to promote the general welfare, and not because it furthers our own interests.� The conclusion of the argument says that we should act Egoistically, but the premises of the argument suggest that we should think in terms of the betterment of all.� The argument supports Egoism in the sense that it purports to give us a reason to act Egoistically.� But the reason it gives us is decidedly un-Egoistic.� If Egoism is understood as the theory that what makes an action right is that it promotes the interests of the actor, then the argument is not compatible with Egoism. 1.� Altruism � sacrificing our own interests to promote the interests of others � involves forcing our own conception of what is good on another person. 2.� We have no right to force our own conception of what is good on another person. 3.� Moreover, altruism, in the form of �charity�, robs the recipients of dignity and self-respect, making them dependent. 4.� Altruism is morally wrong. ����������������� You should be able to pick apart this argument pretty easily, especially if you have read the chapter.� The main thing to note is that premises 1 and 3 are sweeping generalizations that seem to have many exceptions. 1.� If we harm others, others will be inclined to harm us. 2.� If we lie to others, others will not believe us. 3.� If we fail to keep our promises, then others will not keep their promises to us. 4.� Therefore, we have self-interested reasons to avoid harming others, to tell the truth, and to keep our promises. 5.� In general, if we treat others badly (by not taking their interests into consideration), then they will do likewise. 6.� So, in general, we have a self-interested reason to avoid treating others badly. 7.� Therefore, Egoism implies that we should not treat others badly.

Pages: 320

Publisher: Springer; 1996 edition (April 30, 1996)

ISBN: 0792337395

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And why does the study of ethics and morality even matter - don't we already and inherently understand how to reason about morals and arrive at ethical decisions , source: Philosophy and Psychiatry download for free download for free? Do to others what you would have other do onto you ( or alternatively, don’t do to others what you wouldn’t have others do onto you). Act in such a way, that the maxim of your will could always hold as a principle of universal order The Apologetics Collection The Apologetics Collection. For Rand it is important to be a hardworking and creative person and to be as independent as you can. In her view people should work hard to satisfy their needs, they should not expect others to give them a hand-out or a free ride. If you work hard and achieve a good life for yourself, such as having wealth for example, then you have earned what you possess and no one should have the right to demand that you give it away to those less fortunate or successful than yourself Health Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice read epub. Philosophical theories on the nature and origins of morality (that is, theories of meta-ethics ) are broadly divided into two classes: Moral realism is the class of theories which hold that there are true moral statements that report objective moral facts. For example, while they might concede that forces of social conformity significantly shape individuals' "moral" decisions, they deny that those cultural norms and customs define morally right behavior Thus Spake Zarathustra Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue. (Confucius, Analects) Have no friends not equal to yourself. (Confucius, Analects) What the superior man seeks is in himself; what the small man seeks is in others. (Confucius) Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. (Confucius, Analects) If a man takes no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand. (Confucius, Analects) Life itself is neither a good nor an evil: life is where good or evil find a place, depending on how you make it for them. (Seneca) Moral philosophy is nothing else but the science of what is good, and evil, in the conversation, and society of mankind Ethics and International Relations (Fulbright Papers: Proceedings of Colloquia) Ethics and International Relations.

Due to the climate, environmental conditions, and certain religious beliefs, the people of the South Seas have developed certain practices by which to manifest the transcultural value of modesty Cognition, Semantics and Philosophy: Proceedings of the First International Colloqium on Cognitive Science (Philosophical Studies Series) Cognition, Semantics and Philosophy:. Relativists believe that all truth is relative. Therefore, the statement, "All truth is relative," would be absolutely true. If this statement is absolutely true, then not all things are relative and the statement is false. Relativists declare that "there are no absolute truths." However, this is an absolute statement, which is supposed to be true. Therefore, it is an absolute truth and the statement is false Nationhood and Political Theory For example, an action may not necessarily be illegal but only socially unacceptable, to be considered unethical. I think the main difference is that ethics is dictated by what others think and their standards, while morals are dictated by personal and individual beliefs The Ethics of Community (New read here Both of these basic elements of ethics that I have outlined can be expressed in terms of Heidegger's general dynamic of authenticity, as a coming to one's own decision in the midst of finite world involvements, and in terms of temporality, as a bringing to presence of future possibilities in the midst of an appropriated past. The problem with traditional moral theories is that they want to "definitize" and "detemporalize" ethics by grounding the good in some fixed scheme; and they bypass the abyssal element of existential decision by modelling ethical deliberation along the lines of demonstrative and calculative techniques that in a sense decide things "for" us (I don't "decide," for example, that 2 + 2 is 4, or that "Socrates is mortal" in the classic syllogism) , source: Ethics, Love, and Faith in Kierkegaard: Philosophical Engagements (Indiana Series in the Philosophy of Religion) Ethics, Love, and Faith in Kierkegaard:.

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In many cases Ethical Egoists are also hedonists, which means that they view pleasure or happiness as the ultimate goal of life, to be specific, their own happiness and pleasure Did My Neurons Make Me Do It?: Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free Will download epub. Whereas I should contend that a man is responsible for the bad consequences of his bad actions, but gets no credit for the good ones; and contrariwise is not responsible for the bad consequences of good actions. The denial of any distinction between foreseen and intended consequences, as far as responsibility is concerned, was not made by Sidgwick in developing any one "method of ethics"; he made this important move on behalf of everybody and just on its own account; and I think it plausible to suggest that this move on the part of Sidgwick explains the difference between old‑fashioned Utilitarianism and that consequentialism, as I name it, which marks him and every English academic moral philosopher since him Value and Justification: The read pdf My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness "in our thoughts." Flanagan (1991) discusses the challenge at length, arguing that it is not as radical as it may seem. Railton (1997) thinks the challenge is more serious, as does Doris (forthcoming) in an important book length study. Let me begin my own account by emphasizing that the empirical results of contemporary social psychology can seem extremely counter-intuitive on first acquaintance , source: Introducing Applied Ethics read online Introducing Applied Ethics. Bauer laments that the values "on which there is wide agreement, for example, honesty, courage, humility, kindness, generosity, and patriotism have been eliminated from many texts." Perhaps the clearest example is from our President, Ronald Reagan, who had this to say about education's basic purpose: "We're beginning to realize, once again, that education at its core is more than just teaching our young the skills that are needed for a job, however important that is , cited: The Moral Writings of John read online

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Information Ethics: investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of computers and information technologies The Estimates of Moral Values Expressed in Cicero's Letters: A Study of the Motives Professed or Approved (Classic Reprint) His assertion that, "every rational being exists as an end in himself and not merely as a means to be arbitrarily used by this or that will" [Beck, p.46] -- jedes vernünftige Wesen existiert als Zweck an sich selbst, nicht bloß als Mittel zum beliebigen Gebrauche fur diesen order jenen Willen" [p.428] -- is, I think, true; and it adds another feature, the concepts of means and ends, to the idea of a rational being Economy, Difference, Empire: Social Ethics for Social Justice (Columbia Series on Religion and Politics) Economy, Difference, Empire: Social. The Metaphysics of Morals, for instance, is meant to be based on a priori rational principles, but many of the specific duties that Kant describes, along with some of the arguments he gives in support of them, rely on general facts about human beings and our circumstances that are known from experience Immorality (Princeton Legacy read here read here. The parable also suggests that there is a difference in type of religiosity or morality. The priest and Levite in Jesus's act virtuously in order to please God, where the Samaritan responds more directly to the needs of another person. The standard interpretation of the parable focuses on the third of these variables, the type of religious or moral character of the agent Protagoras: With the read for free read for free. From a moral perspective, (considered as a moral agent) we are all equal.� No one is privileged. The only things for which a person can be held morally accountable are those things which are under one�s own control.� The consequences of our actions are NOT under our own control.� Thus we cannot be held morally responsible for the consequences of our actions. 3.� However, our WILL is completely under our own direct control (usually, at least in healthy adults) thus our will is the only basis for moral evaluation of our actions , source: Art of Living: The Classical Manual on Virtue, Happiness, and Effectiveness Art of Living: The Classical Manual on. In contraposition, individuals may agree about a certain moral or ethic even if they subscribe to different moral codes. Everyone has their own moral philosophy and their own morals Code of Professional Ethics of the Ameri Code of Professional Ethics of the Ameri. Proposed by the British philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), the principal of utility is based on happiness and was seen as being a scientific approach to morality. Critical philosophers of the nineteenth century were less certain that universal moral values could be upheld , e.g. A Selection from the download online The word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality,' and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual." [7] Likewise, certain types of ethical theories, especially deontological ethics, sometimes distinguish between ethics and morals: "Although the morality of people and their ethics amounts to the same thing, there is a usage that restricts morality to systems such as that of Immanuel Kant, based on notions such as duty, obligation, and principles of conduct, reserving ethics for the more Aristotelian approach to practical reasoning, based on the notion of a virtue, and generally avoiding the separation of 'moral' considerations from other practical considerations." [8] In its descriptive sense, "morality" refers to personal or cultural values, codes of conduct or social mores Moral Cultivation and download pdf

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